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Hydrogen is a positive ion. Hydrogen atoms consist of a proton in the nucleus surrounded by one electron.
Nitrogen. If a nitrogen has three bonds and a lone pair, it has a formal charge of zero. If it has four bonds (and no lone pair), it has a formal charge of 1+. In a fairly uncommon bonding pattern, negatively charged nitrogen has two bonds and two lone pairs.
The more electronegative an atom, the better it is able to bear a negative charge. Oxygen, as the more electronegative element, holds more tightly to its lone pair than the nitrogen. The nitrogen lone pair, therefore, is more likely to break away and form a new bond to a proton – it is, in other words, more basic.
A carbon with a negative charge is the least favorable conformation for the molecule to exist, so the last resonance form contributes very little for the stability of the Ion.
Resonance stabilizes negative charge, since it can be distributed over a larger area. Electron withdrawing groups also stabilize negative charge, for reasons similar to electronegativity. Stabilization is best for sp > sp2 > sp3, since the negative charge will be held more tightly to the nucleus.
Carbon brought 4 electrons to the molecule, but one of the bonded atoms has been removed and the electrons in the old bond went to carbon giving it one more electron that it normally “owns” and a negative formal charge.
The fluorine ion F- has a net negative charge yet the electrons are some how clinging to it. The notion of shielding of electrons in the same-shell provides a different sort of justification for the F-. The two electrons in the inner shell fully shield two protons.
26, 2020, thoughtco.com/element-charges-chart-603986. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph. D….Table of Common Element Charges.