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What could be considered the first civil police force designed to protect citizens rather than those in power?

The first civil police force designed to protect citizens rather than those in power were the Vigiles. Explanation: It consisted of seven thousand-man cohorts and was under the command of the Praefectus Vigilum.

What does Praetorian Guard mean?

: a member of the bodyguard of the emperor of ancient Rome instituted by Augustus and consisting at first of 9 and later of 10 cohorts and coming to have great power in the making and unmaking of emperors until suppressed by Constantine in a.d. 312.

What replaced the Praetorian Guard?

69, when the general Vitellius defeated the Emperor Otho and seized the Roman throne. Fearing assassination at the hands of Otho’s loyal Praetorians, Vitellius dismissed the standing members of the Guard and replaced them with a new, larger force of troops recruited from his own legions.

What are the4 basic functions of management?

Originally identified by Henri Fayol as five elements, there are now four commonly accepted functions of management that encompass these necessary skills: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. 1 Consider what each of these functions entails, as well as how each may look in action.

What are the 10 functions of management?

Functions of a Manager

  • Planning.
  • Organizing.
  • Staffing.
  • Directing/leading.
  • Coordinating.
  • Reporting.
  • Budgeting.
  • Controlling.

What are the 3 types of management?

Key Points

  • The three levels of management typically found in an organization are low-level management, middle-level management, and top-level management.
  • Top-level managers are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization.

What is the most important role of management accounting?

The most important job of the management accountant is to conduct a relevant cost analysis to determine the existing expenses and give suggestions for the future activities. Once the management accounting team is done with relevant cost analysis, you can make better and evidence-based decisions.

What are the basic principles of managerial accounting?

The two management accounting principles are:

  • Principle of Causality (i.e., the need for cause and effect insights) and,
  • Principle of Analogy (i.e., the application of causal insights by management in their activities).

What are the objectives and functions of management accounting?

The main objective of managerial accounting is to assist the management of a company in efficiently performing its functions: planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. Management accounting helps with these functions in the following ways: 1. Provides data: It serves as a vital source of data for planning.

What is the role of management account?

What Is the Role of Management Accounting? Management accounting helps managers within a company make decisions. Also known as cost accounting, management accounting is the process of identifying, analyzing, interpreting and communicating information to managers to help achieve business goals.

Where you can apply the concepts of management accounting?

In tune with this, management accounting concepts include cost analysis, cost behaviour, and cost variances. For a manufacturing business, the applications of these concepts include dealing with the costs of acquiring raw materials, developing new products, and recruiting new workers, for example.

What is the primary objective of management accounting?

Provide the management complete and true information.

What are the tools and techniques used in management accounting?

Important tools and techniques used in management accounting

  • Financial Planning. The main objective of any business organization is maximization of profits.
  • Financial Statement Analysis.
  • Cost Accounting.
  • Fund Flow Analysis.
  • Cash Flow Analysis.
  • Standard Costing.
  • Marginal Costing.
  • Budgetary Control.

What are the tools of accounting?

Our favorite accounting tools for your small business

  1. AccountEdge Pro. AccountEdge Pro offers both on-premise and cloud access and is a great fit for small and growing businesses.
  2. FreshBooks.
  3. QuickBooks Desktop.
  4. Zoho Books.
  5. Sage 50cloud Accounting.
  6. OneUp.
  7. Kashoo.
  8. ZipBooks.

What are the accounting techniques?

The two main accounting methods are cash accounting and accrual accounting. Cash accounting records revenues and expenses when they are received and paid. Accrual accounting records revenues and expenses when they occur. Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) requires accrual accounting.

Which is the tool of management accounting?

Analysis of financial statements is the main tool of management accounting. In this tool, we collect four financial statement, one is profit and loss account, second is balance sheet, third is cash flow statement and fourth and last is fund flow statement.

What are the traditional management accounting techniques?

These techniques are costing, budgeting, decision making, performance analysis and relevant costing etc. There is evidence that accounting study and practice have reasonable gap between them.

Which is the advantage of management accounting?

Better Decision Making Management accounting helps in effective decision making for an organization. It supplies all required information in the form of charts, tables, and forecasts to the management team. All this information enables managers in performing detailed analysis and taking correct decisions.

What are the features of management accounting?

Features or Characteristics of Management Accounting

  • Selective Nature.
  • More Emphasis on Future.
  • Provides only information but no decision.
  • The Problem of Choice.
  • Study Causes and Effects Relationship.
  • Importance to Elements of Costs.
  • Not bounded by the Rules of Financial Accounting.
  • Recognition of Non-monetary Variables.

What is the importance of accounting ratio?

Accounting ratios, an important sub-set of financial ratios, are a group of metrics used to measure the efficiency and profitability of a company based on its financial reports. They provide a way of expressing the relationship between one accounting data point to another and are the basis of ratio analysis.

Why is management accounting is important in decision making?

Managerial accounting helps managers make operational decisions–intended to help increase the company’s operational efficiency–while also helps in making long-term investment decisions.

Why is management accounting important in modern age?

Essentially, management accountants provide key insights that help a company’s management team make many of their decisions. They also support decision making within a company by providing a wealth of financial and statistical information, often assisted by powerful accounting software.

What are the disadvantages of managerial accounting?

Limitations or disadvantages of management accounting

  • Based on Financial and Cost Records.
  • Personal Bias.
  • Lack of Knowledge and Understanding of the Related Subjects.
  • Provides only Data.
  • Preference to Intuitive Decision Making.
  • Management Accounting is only a Tool.
  • Continuity and Participation.
  • Broad Based Scope.

What are the 10 major limitation of managerial accounting?

Limitations Of Management Accounting

  • Based On Accounting Information. Management accounting is based on data and information provided by financial accounting and cost accounting.
  • Lack Of Knowledge.
  • Intensive Decisions.
  • Management Accounting Is Only A Tool.
  • Evolutionary Stage.
  • Personal Prejudices And Bias.
  • Psychological Resistance.

What are disadvantages of accounting?

Disadvantages of Accounting

  • Expresses Accounting information in terms of money.
  • Accounting information is based on estimates.
  • Accounting information may be biased.
  • Recording of Fixed assets at the original cost.
  • Manipulation of Accounts.
  • Money as a measurement unit changes in value.

What is traditional accounting practices?

Traditional accounting practices focus on cost reporting and fixed-asset utilization to reflect the many essential traits of conventional businesses, such as incremental labor and machine usage. Thus, increases shown in accounting records on labor costs and asset value indicate improved business performance.

What are the advantages and disadvantages in using the traditional way of accounting?

Advantages of a Traditional Accounting System

  • System Errors. One major advantage of a traditional accounting information system is avoiding data system errors and file corruption.
  • Error Improvement.
  • Always Available.
  • Data Entry Errors.
  • Loss of Hard Copies.
  • Cost.

What is the traditional costing method?

Traditional costing is the allocation of factory overhead to products based on the volume of production resources consumed. Under this method, overhead is usually applied based on either the amount of direct labor hours consumed or machine hours used.