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What is the function of super heater in the boiler?

In a steam engine, the superheater re-heats the steam generated by the boiler, increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. Superheaters increase the thermal efficiency of the steam engine, and have been widely adopted.

How many methods of superheater temperature control are there?

Desuperheating system Three major systems are adopted the world over: the injection type, the flue gas flow diverting type, and the burner tilt. The last two are adopted for reheater steam temperature control. The first one is adopted for superheater temperature control.

Which materials are used for superheater tubes?

The superheater & reheater tubes may be made of carbon-The superheater & reheater tubes may be made of carbon- molybdenum steel, chromium-molybdenum steel, or 18-8 chromium-molybdenum steel, chromium-molybdenum steel, or 18-8 chromium- nickel (stainless) steel. nickel (stainless) steel.

How many types of economizers are there?

2 types

What is economizer mode?

An economizer is part of rooftop package units—the most common type of HVAC system for businesses. Essentially, if it isn’t too hot inside your building, the economizer allows the refrigerant-based AC to take a break while the outdoor air does most of the work.

What is economizer function?

A common application of economizers in steam power plants is to capture the waste heat from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer it to the boiler feedwater. This raises the temperature of the boiler feedwater, lowering the needed energy input, in turn reducing the firing rates needed for the rated boiler output.

Why economiser is used in chiller?

An economizer is a type of sub-cooler that uses part of the total refrigerant flow from the condenser to cool the rest of the refrigerant flow (see Figure 10.13). The cold gas from the economizer can also be used to provide extra cooling for the compressor.

What is the best chiller efficiency?

approximately 70-75 percent

What is chiller approach?

Condenser approach temperature is simply defined as the difference between the condenser liquid refrigerant temperature and the outlet condenser water temperature. High chiller approach temperatures usually mean reduced heat transfer, increased energy consumptions, and a reduction in refrigeration capacity.

How can we increase the efficiency of chiller?

Tips to Improve Chiller Plant Efficiency

  1. Keep tubes clean for efficient heat transfer: – Heat transfer has the greatest single effect on chiller performance.
  2. Treat condensate water: – Proper water treatment is required for all condenser water loops.

What is difference between cop and efficiency?

Efficiency is used to describe power cycles that output energy, i.e. any steam/gas power cycle while COP is used for cycles that consume energy. Efficiency is regarded as the ratio of net work to the heat being put into the system (W_net/Q_in).

What is the correct temperature for a chiller?

Generally, temperatures of between 45 and 50 degrees are suitable for cooling equipment. Pharmaceutical uses include use of chilled water in manufacturing and cool storage. Usually, 35 to 46 degrees is the recommended temperature for refrigeration during transport and storage of most cold-chain medications.

What is chiller efficiency?

Coefficient of Performance (COP): Chiller efficiency measured in Btu output (cooling) divid- ed by Btu input (electric power). Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER): Performance of smaller chillers and rooftop units is fre- quently measured in EER rather than kW/ton.

What is COP in chiller?

COP stands for Coefficient Of Performance and indicates the efficiency of heating and cooling machines. The COP is defined by the ratio heat dissipation and electrical power intake. It’s like the efficiency of the machine, but higher than 100%. It could be less than 100% for a machine not working properly.

What is a good cop for a chiller?

For water cooled chillers, the minimum COP is 4.2 and the minimum IPLV is 5.2; for air cooled chillers the minimum COP is 2.5 and the minimum IPLV is 3.4. In general, water cooled chillers are more compact, less noisy, have longer operating lives and are more energy efficient than air cooled chillers.

What is the relationship between cop of heating and cooling?

The coefficient of performance or COP (sometimes CP or CoP) of a heat pump, refrigerator or air conditioning system is a ratio of useful heating or cooling provided to work required. Higher COPs equate to lower operating costs.

How do you calculate the operating cost of a chiller?

For the simplified method, IPLV was used for determining chiller operating costs by multiplying the IPLV kW/ton value, the chiller plant tonnage, the chiller plant operating hours provided by the load calculation program, and the electrical consumption rate.

How much does a chiller cost?

Water-cooled screw and scroll chiller costs vary by manufacturer, location, and technology options. A survey of the major manufacturers shows an average cost of approximately $250 to $350 per ton for the chiller itself, depending on capacity.

How is chiller energy consumption calculated?

Take for example a chiller which is producing 2,500kW of cooling or 8,533,364BTU/h in metric units. The electrical power demand of the chiller to produce this is 460kW. The metric calculation would be: 2,500kW / 460kW = 5.4 so the COP is 5.4.

How much electricity does a chiller use?

At part-load conditions, we have variable-speed chillers operating at 0.19 to 0.32 kw per ton and, sometimes, entire plants operating as low as 0.29 kw per ton. When you average all cooling ton-hours and kilowatt-hours, you can achieve an average of less than 0.5 kw per ton.

What is EER of chiller?

The EER is the relationship between the cooling capacity of chiller and the total power consumption of the refriger- ation unit (compressors + fans). This chart above refers to an air cooled chiller with R-134A refrigerant, with inlet wa- ter temperature of 12°C and outlet water temperature of 7°C.

How is HVAC efficiency calculated?

The EER is a measure of the cooling power of an air conditioning system per unit of power consumed. It is calculated by dividing the cooling power provided by an AC per hour by the number of watts of electricity consumed.

How much more efficient is a 20 SEER vs 14 SEER?

However, if you are weighing out the energy savings of a 14 SEER ($940 per year) compared to the same 20 SEER unit ($658 per year), you should expect the difference in savings to be lower over the next 15 years, because a 14 SEER can give you a substantial savings as well.

Is 21 SEER worth the money?

SEER stands for Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio. This is the ratio of the cooling output of an air conditioner over a typical cooling season, divided by the energy it uses in Watt-Hours. If your SEER ratio is 21, that’s the maximum efficiency and it could be lower depending on conditions.

How much more efficient is a 16 SEER vs 14 SEER?

According to the Kobie SEER Energy Savings Calculator, a 16 SEER unit uses about 13% less energy to produce the same amount of cooling as a 14 SEER unit of the same size. That means that for every $100 you’d pay to run your 14 SEER unit, you could save $13 by upgrading to a 16 SEER unit.

Is a 2 stage AC worth the money?

If you don’t mind the slightly higher up-front costs of a two stage air conditioner, it’s definitely worth it to install one. You’ll not only see significant energy savings throughout your system’s lifetime, but you’ll also have a more comfortable home.

Is higher SEER worth it?

While a higher rated air conditioner will cost more upfront, it’s usually worth the investment. Despite the high price jump above the minimum 14 SEER rating, an energy efficient air conditioner can pay for itself in just a few years with substantial energy savings — especially in hot climates like Las Vegas.