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A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism).
Federalism is the system of government in which power is divided between a central government and regional governments; in the United States, both the national government and the state governments possess a large measure of sovereignty.
ConfederationRepublicPresidential systemNon-partisan democracy
Such powers are called concurrent powers. These include the power to tax, spend, and borrow money. State governments operate their own judicial systems, charter corporations, provide public education, and regulate property rights.
Under his model, the political authority of the state is divided into legislative, executive and judicial powers. He asserted that, to most effectively promote liberty, these three powers must be separate and acting independently.
This system includes five major functional areas, staffed as needed, for a given incident: Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration.
All response assets are organized into five functional areas: Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Administration/Finance. Figure 1-3 highlights the five functional areas of ICS and their primary responsibilities.
Primary tabs. See Preemption; constitutional clauses. Article VI, Paragraph 2 of the U.S. Constitution is commonly referred to as the Supremacy Clause. It establishes that the federal constitution, and federal law generally, take precedence over state laws, and even state constitutions.
Nullification, in United States constitutional history, is a legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal laws which that state has deemed unconstitutional with respect to the United States Constitution (as opposed to the state’s own constitution).
When state law and federal law conflict, federal law displaces, or preempts, state law, due to the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution.
The law that applies to situations where state and federal laws disagree is called the supremacy clause, which is part of article VI of the Constitution [source: FindLaw]. Basically, if a federal and state law contradict, then when you’re in the state you can follow the state law, but the fed can decide to stop you.
Rule 5.1. Constitutional Challenge to a Statute
The judicial branch interprets laws and determines if a law is unconstitutional. The judicial branch includes the U.S. Supreme Court and lower federal courts.
When the proper court determines that a legislative act or law conflicts with the constitution, it finds that law unconstitutional and declares it void in whole or in part.
The ability to decide if a law violates the Constitution is called judicial review. It is this process that the judiciary uses to provide checks and balances on the legislative and executive branches. Judicial review is not an explicit power given to the courts, but it is an implied power.
Some examples of Constitutional and Civil Rights violations include: Freedom of speech – Protesters’ Rights. Freedom of religion. Police misconduct. Censorship in public schools or libraries.
5 Ways Your Constitutional Rights Are Being Violated
If your rights were violated by a government official or a company, you may be entitled to compensation. This can be a long, complicated process. Before you file an actual lawsuit for some civil rights violations allegations, you must file a claim/complaint with a federal or state agency first.
The U.S. Constitution outlines the basic rights of all citizens of the United States. The state constitutions can add rights, but they can’t take away any U.S. Constitutional rights.
What’s unalienable cannot be taken away or denied. Its most famous use is in the Declaration of Independence, which says people have unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Human rights are inalienable. They should not be taken away, except in specific situations and according to due process. For example, the right to liberty may be restricted if a person is found guilty of a crime by a court of law.
Bill of Rights – The Really Brief Version
|1||Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.|
|7||Right of trial by jury in civil cases.|
|8||Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments.|
|9||Other rights of the people.|
|10||Powers reserved to the states.|
No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
First Amendment: Freedom of religion, freedom of speech and the press, the right to assemble, the right to petition government. Second Amendment: The right to form a militia and to keep and bear arms. Sixth Amendment: People have a right to a speedy trial, to legal counsel, and to confront their accusers.
The Ninth Amendment was part of the Bill of Rights that was added to the Constitution on December 15, 1791. It says that all the rights not listed in the Constitution belong to the people, not the government. In other words, the rights of the people are not limited to just the rights listed in the Constitution.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Since that time, however, the Ninth Amendment has been used as a secondary source of liberties and has emerged as important in the extension of the rights of privacy.
Because the rights protected by the Ninth Amendment are not specified, they are referred to as “unenumerated.” The Supreme Court has found that unenumerated rights include such important rights as the right to travel, the right to vote, the right to keep personal matters private and to make important decisions about …